In a landmark event in the history of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), a diverse coalition of 52 States and three prominent international organisations, namely the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the African Union (AU), and the Arab League, made unprecedented contributions to a case before the court. The hearings scrutinised decades of Israeli illegal actions in occupied regions including the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Palestinian territory as a whole. The urgency of these proceedings is underscored by the recent escalation of the genocide in Gaza, considered the deadliest moment in Israel’s decades-long and violent occupation to date, coupled with a prior court ruling directing Israel to restrain its attacks in the region. In his opening address, the Palestinian Authority's Foreign Minister, Riyad al-Maliki, lamented the decades-long plight of Palestinians, framing their options as a stark choice between "displacement, subjugation, or death."

Central to the legal inquiry are fundamental questions posed by the UN General Assembly to the ICJ regarding the legal consequences of Israel's violations of the Palestinian people's right to self-determination and the legal status of the occupation. The initial phase of proceedings featured diverse perspectives from stakeholders, marking a pivotal moment in the quest for justice and resolution for the Palestinian people.

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